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3 learning types | The learning cycle | Confucian wisdom | Use of presentation media

3 learning types by E. Meumann

In the beginning of the 20th century Ernst Meumann analysed the perception and absorption abilities of people and differentiated between the visual and the auditory learning type.(14) Later on the kinaesthetic learning type was added.(15)

  • The visual learning type:
    The visual learning type perceives information primarily with his/her eyes and therefore profit the most from visual presentation of information. Visual learners have two sub-channels—linguistic and spatial. Learners who are visual-linguistic like to learn through written language, such as reading and writing tasks. Learners who are visual-spatial usually do better with charts, demonstrations, videos, and other visual materials.
    • Possible techniques: use graphs, charts, illustrations, or other visual aids (e.g. videos, mind maps, graphs to present numbers and relations…)
  • The auditory learning type:
    The auditory learning type perceives information primarily with his/her ears and therefore profits the most from listening to information or also from talking him-/herself.
    • Possible techniques: oral introductions and summaries, brainstorming, buzz groups, discussions…
  • The kinaesthetic learning type:
    The kinaesthetic learning type perceives information primarily in connection with motor activity and therefore profits the most from active and also interactive presentations of information. There also are two sub-channels of this learning type: kinaesthetic (movement) and tactile (touch).
    • Possible techniques: Get the audience up and moving, use colored markers to emphasize, do experiments or roleplays…(16)

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(14)Meumann, Ernst (1908). Ökonomie und Technik des Gedächtnisses; Experimentelle Untersuchungen über das Merken und Behalten. Klinkhardt